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DARPA Tests Robotic Autonomy in Complex Environments with Resiliency (RACER) Vehicles

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DARPA Tests Robotic Autonomy in Complex Environments with Resiliency (RACER) Vehicles

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DARPA Tests Robotic Autonomy in Complex Environments with Resiliency (RACER) Vehicles
DARPA Tests Robotic Autonomy in Complex Environments with Resiliency (RACER) Vehicles

DARPA’s Robotic Autonomy in Complex Environments with Resiliency (RACER) program successfully tested autonomous movement on a new, much larger fleet vehicle – a significant step in scaling up the adaptability and capability of the underlying RACER algorithms. The RACER Heavy Platform (RHP) vehicles are 12-ton, 20-foot-long, skid-steer tracked vehicles – similar in size to forthcoming robotic and optionally manned combat/fighting vehicles. The RHPs complement the 2-ton, 11-foot-long, Ackermann-steered, wheeled RACER Fleet Vehicles (RFVs) already in use. RACER’s second phase began last fall with its fourth experiment (“E4”), which included first testing of RHPs and testing on RFVs by teams from the University of Washington and from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. RACER is on pace to continue its autonomy development and experiment spirals with a new round of development and testing roughly every six months.

“Having two radically different types of vehicles helps us advance towards RACER’s goal of platform agnostic autonomy in complex, mission-relevant off-road environments that are significantly more unpredictable than on-road conditions. For Phase 2, adding the combat-scale RHP robot supports porting and performance demonstration of RACER autonomy stacks at multiple scales concurrently while moving between highly varied terrains. Our Phase 2 off-road average autonomous speed goals are higher at lower intervention rates, and both RFVs plus now RHPs allow RACER to also show adaptability and resiliency of autonomous software at multiple, platform-agnostic ground robot scales in an array of complex, military-relevant environments. As we also add tactics-based autonomy, we see all of these together as vitally important to Army and Marine needs in robotic vehicle programs of record that are closely tracking RACER, and which represent possible transition opportunities for the program. RACER’s early Phase 2 activities, both with Experiment 4 performance successes in difficult, new-to-the-program, military relevant terrain in Texas, as well as recent incorporation of RHP as a fleet platform is setting the tone for the program to achieve tougher autonomous maneuver goals while showing autonomy resiliency and adaptability to new environments on any robot at any scale,” said Stuart Young, RACER program manager.

Unoccupied RACER Fleet Vehicle (RFV) autonomously negotiating a RACER experiment course at E4 in Texas.
Unoccupied RACER Fleet Vehicle (RFV) autonomously negotiating a RACER experiment course at E4 in Texas. (Photo by DARPA)

RACER E4 took place in late 2023 at military training areas in Texas. Using fully unoccupied RFVs, RACER demonstrated autonomous movement within a 15 square mile terrain area including highly diverse ground vegetation cover, trees, bushes, rocks, slopes, obstructed ditches, and creek crossings typical of the varied, complex Texas terrain familiar to armored maneuver. Adaptability was further demonstrated by successful runs at night with equivalent performance results. The two RACER teams had not previously operated in, nor been exposed to sensor data sets of the E4 military training areas and were given no practice upon arrival before starting official courses, presenting an opportunity for autonomy stacks to be adaptively improved – but only onsite and within the time offered during the experiment. Teams successfully completed over 30 autonomous runs on courses varying from 3 to 10 miles in length, achieving over 150 autonomous, unoccupied miles at speeds up to 30 miles per hour. Additionally, the RACER program commissioned the RHP at E4 by operating for over 30 miles in an autonomous-route-following-mode over similarly complex terrain to test low-level autonomous control, collect sensor data sets, assess mobility, and refine operations. Finally, E4 began software development of RACER global planning with tactics and performed focus groups with uniformed subject matter experts stationed at the E4 military base to assist with defining input of tactical reasoning.

The RHP utilizes the Textron M5 base platform previously developed and used in U.S. Army campaigns of learning for robotic combat vehicle requirements and acquisition and is upfitted and supported for RACER autonomy integration hardware stacks and software by Carnegie Robotics. RACER Phase 2 performer teams are the University of Washington and Overland AI; and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Offroad Autonomy, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Duality Robotics. The fall 2023 RACER E4 followed Phase 1 experiments in March 2023 (Ft. Irwin, California), September 2022 (Camp Roberts, California), and March 2022 (Ft. Irwin, California). RACER is planning two experiments in 2024 to keep its every-six-month cadence of field tests to keep robots constantly improving; in between, the two RACER Phase 2 teams will continue constant development and testing at multiple test sites local to each. This spring marks the 20th anniversary of DARPA’s pathbreaking Grand Challenge, which spurred American ingenuity to accelerate the development of autonomous vehicle technologies that could be applied to military requirements. RACER’s work continues to advance the potential for revolutionary capabilities in autonomy, particularly in complex, off-road environments.

DARPA Tests Robotic Autonomy in Complex Environments with Resiliency (RACER) Vehicles
RACER Heavy Platform (RHP) during RACER testing at E4 in Texas – autonomous route following for mobility testing and demonstration. (Photo by DARPA)

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