The Kołowy Transporter Opancerzony (KTO) Rosomak is 8×8 multi-role military vehicle produced by Rosomak S.A. (formerly Wojskowe Zakłady Mechaniczne) in Siemianowice Śląskie, a Polish Armaments Group company. The vehicle is a licensed variant of Patria’s Armored Modular Vehicle. In December 2002, the Polish Ministry of National Defense signed a contract to buy 690 Patria AMV vehicles, to be manufactured in Poland. The main competitors of the AMV were the MOWAG Piranha and Steyr Pandur. As part of the initial order, 690 vehicles were to be delivered in two basic variants: 313 combat IFV and 377 transport/special base vehicles. In October 2013 order increased to 997 for delivery between 2014 and 2019. The name Rosomak (Polish for Wolverine) was chosen following a contest organized by the Nowa Technika Wojskowa magazine. The KTO Rosomak will replace the obsolete OT-64 SKOT APCs and partially the BWP-1 IFV currently in service with the Polish Land Forces.
The Infantry fighting vehicle variant with to Oto Melara Hitfist-30P gun turret armed with 30 mm ATK Mk 44 chain gun and 7.62mm NATO UKM-2000C machine gun. The turret has advanced fire control system with thermal sight and Obra laser warning system connected to six 81 mm 902A ZM Dezamet smoke grenade launchers. Infantry fighting vehicle variant modified for war in Afghanistan was called Rosomak-M1M, it was equipped with additional steel-composite armor, upgraded communications, wire cutters in front of driver and commander hatch, video cameras showing back and sides of vehicle on two LCD screens in troop compartment, Pilar system that detects the direction of fire. Because of additional armor this variant cannot float and has no water propellers. This variant was further upgraded to standard known as M1M. Most noticeable change is addition of QinetiQ RPGNet anti RPG net and new “sand” camouflage. Other changes include installation of Duke anti IED system and Blue Force Tracking BMS system (systems on loan from US Army). All older (“green”) Rosomaks in M1 standard also received RPG Net.
Poland is the sole user of KTO Rosomak but as the first export customer of Patria Oy AMV & WZM SA has the right to export the KTO Rosomak in some markets. The Polish Land Forces contingent, which was a part of the International Security Assistance Force operated over 100 KTO Rosomak vehicles (including 5 medevac versions) during the Afghanistan War. The APC’s were equipped with additional steel-composite armor. In early 2008 a Polish Rosomak serving in Afghanistan (the version with upgraded armor) was attacked by the Taliban. The vehicle was hit by two RPG-7 rockets, but it managed to fire back and then returned to base without any help required. In June 2008 a Rosomak was attacked by Taliban and was hit in its frontal armor with a RPG. The armour was not penetrated. In 2009 the first soldier was reported killed while inside a Rosomak, after an improvised explosive device exploded under the vehicle, which rolled over and crushed the gunner who had been sitting in the open turret. Similar attacks had occurred before, but had failed to inflict casualties.
Polish Land Forces KTO Rosomak