The special forces of the Australian Defence Force are units of Special Operations Command and associated units of the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force that conduct and or support special operations to advance and protect the national security of the Commonwealth of Australia. The special forces of Australia have a lineage to a variety of units raised in the Second World War such as the Independent and Commando Companies, Z Special Unit, Navy Beach Commandos, and the Coastwatchers. Australian special forces have most recently been deployed to Iraq in Operation Okra as the Special Operations Task Group, as the Special Operations Task Group in Afghanistan, in Afghanistan in support of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service and regularly for counter-terrorism pre-deploy to locations of major domestic events throughout Australia in readiness to support law enforcement such as the 2014 G20 Brisbane summit.
The ultimate authority for the deployment of Australian special forces rests with the National Security Committee through consultation with the Chief of the Defence Force, the Secretary of Defence, and the Australian Intelligence Community. The Special Operations Command is the command responsible for Army special forces, including the Special Air Service Regiment, 2nd Commando Regiment and 1st Commando Regiment. The Chief of Joint Operations and joint task force commanders are responsible for the operational functions of Special Operations Command whilst the Chief of Army is responsible for “raise, train, sustain” functions. The Special Operations Commander Australia reports directly to the Chief of the Defence Force for domestic counter terrorism incidents. The Australian Army definition of special operations is “highly specialised and focused operations performed by specially selected, trained and prepared individuals and teams imbued with a creative mindset capable of producing solutions beyond conventional approaches” and that “these activities are designed to achieve tailored operational, military and national strategic effects beyond those of conventional forces.”
All the Australian Army special forces units have been grouped together under the Special Operations Command (SOCOMD) since December 2002. Clearance divers are under the command of the Navy unless seconded to SOCOMD or joint task forces of the Joint Operations Command and the Air Combat Controllers are under the command of the Air Force unless operational when they are attached to SOCOMD units or joint task forces of the Joint Operations Command.