Category Archives: Aerial Warfare

Russia Starts Delivery of S-400 System to Turkey

Russia Starts Delivery of S-400 System to Turkey

The first shipment of Russian-made S-400 air defence system components was loaded into an Antonov An-124 (NATO reporting name: Condor) cargo plane in an undisclosed location in Russia, before being delivered and unloaded at the Murted Air Base near Ankara on Friday. Turkish S-400 operators will travel to Russia for training in July and August. About 20 Turkish servicemen underwent training at a Russian training center in May and June.

Russia Starts Delivery of S-400 System to Turkey

Russia Starts Delivery of S-400 System to Turkey


In late 2017, the president of Turkey and Russian officials have signed an agreement worth of $US 2.5 billion for delivery of the S-400 air defence system units. More recently, the US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, raised concerns over Turkey’s S-400 deal with Russia, but President Erdogan and other Turkish officials rejected the US threat of sanctions over its purchase of S-400 missile systems citing existing international protocols and agreement forms mutually signed and agreed by Turkey and Russia.
Russia Starts Delivery of S-400 System to Turkey

Russia Starts Delivery of S-400 System to Turkey


The S-400 offer with Russia was a better deal than the MIM-104 Patriot system offered by US. The United States threatened Turkey with CAATSA sanctions over Turkey’s decision to buy the S-400 missile defense system from Russia. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said he chose to go ahead with the $2.5 billion purchase from Russia because the United States did not make an adequate offer on its own Patriot air defense system. NATO has that system stationed in Turkey for its own purposes in Syria, but Turkey never purchased it from Washington. NATO officials have raised concerns that the S-400 purchase will not be compatible with other systems already in use in Turkey.
Russia Starts Delivery of S-400 System to Turkey

Russia Starts Delivery of S-400 System to Turkey


The S-400 Triumph (NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300 PMU-3, is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed in the 1990s by Russia’s Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007. One system comprising up to eight divisions (battalions) can control up to 72 launchers, with a maximum of 384 missiles[51] (including missiles with a range of less than 250 km (160 mi)) In 2017 the S-400 was described by The Economist as “one of the best air-defence systems currently made”. According to Siemon Wezeman Senior Researcher of SIPRI the S-400 “is among the most advanced air defence systems available”.

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AFSOC U-28A Draco Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Aircraft

AFSOC U-28A “Draco” Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Aircraft

After more than 13 years in service, the U-28A Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) aircraft officially received approval in May for the naming convention of “Draco” (Draco is the Latin term for dragon). The mission of the Draco is to provide manned fixed-wing tactical airborne ISR support to humanitarian operations, search and rescue, conventional and special operations missions. The U-28A is a modified, single-engine Pilatus PC-12 that operates worldwide. The initial block of U-28 aircraft were procured and modified for use in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The aircraft is crewed by 3, pilot, co-pilot and Combat System Officer (CSO).

AFSOC U-28A Draco Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Aircraft

AFSOC U-28A Draco Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Aircraft


The U-28A fleet evolved from commercially available aircraft that were purchased and then modified with communications gear, aircraft survivability equipment, electro-optical sensors, and advanced navigation systems. The advanced radio-communications suite is capable of establishing DoD/NATO data-links, full-motion video, data, and voice communications. One of the U-28A roles is the insertion, extraction and resupply of Special Operations Forces (SOF). The single-engine U-28A is small enough to land on small grass or dirt airstrips. It can carry 10 passengers or 3,000lbs of cargo and can operate from the type of short, unimproved airstrip that a larger plane, such as the C-130 Hercules, would be too big and heavy for.
AFSOC U-28A Draco Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Aircraft

AFSOC U-28A Draco Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Aircraft


Special Operations Command mission requirements generated a need for small numbers of mission specific aircraft which were procured rapidly to address specific mission needs. The Non-Standard Aircraft (NSAv) fleet is a general program term and encompasses several light and medium aircraft performing utility missions for SOCOM. Overall the NSAv mobility fleet untethers special operations forces from robust infrastructures, extended timelines and allows freedom of movement. The U-28A Draco is an integral part of AFSOC’s Non-standard light tactical fixed wing aircraft fleet, and is operated by the 319th and 34th Special Operations Squadrons, training is conducted by the 5th and 19th SOS; all squadrons are located at Hurlburt Field, Fla.

Airbus Helicopter Joint Light Helicopter

Airbus Helicopter Joint Light Helicopter

The Joint Light Helicopter (hélicoptère interarmées léger – HIL) programme was approved by the French state to meet two objectives: to replace the five fleets of helicopters that are in service in all three branches of the French armed forces; and to implement overall improvements to maintaining the fleet in operational condition (maintien en condition opérationnelle – MCO). The French Minister of the Armed Forces, Florence Parly, has announced that the launch of the Joint Light Helicopter programme has been brought forward to 2021. The helicopter was also given its official name and will be designated as “Guépard” (“Cheetah”) by the French Armed Forces.

Airbus Helicopter Joint Light Helicopter

Airbus Helicopter Joint Light Helicopter


Weaponised and furnished for light attack operations, the H160M can quickly be reconfigured to perform missions ranging from commando infiltration to air intercept, fire support, and anti-ship warfare; up to two stretchers for search and rescue operations; as well as a fast rope system, cargo hook, and hoist that can equally be used for parapublic missions—a versatile, all-in-one asset for modern militaries. The H160 was designed to be a modular helicopter with a single platform, to perform missions ranging from commando infiltration to air intercept, fire support, and anti-ship warfare in order to meet the needs of the army, the navy and the air force through the HIL programme.
Airbus Helicopter Joint Light Helicopter

Airbus Helicopter Joint Light Helicopter


The first of a new generation of helicopter, the H160M derives from the EASA-certified H160. It benefits from a low cost of operations and optimised flight safety. The H160M incorporates the latest technological achievements in French aeronautics. To ensure a high level of availability while reducing operating costs, the H160M’s support and services needs were taken into account from early in its design phase. Innovative and simplified, the H160M’s support is based on the exploitation of data through analytics. In addition, the H160M can be integrated into a secured digital support environment.
Airbus Helicopter Joint Light Helicopter

Airbus Helicopter Joint Light Helicopter


In its army aviation role, the H160M is the perfect complement to an air-land force, reconnaissance, special forces operations, and Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) operations. As a naval asset, the H160M is a formidable addition to anti-surface warfare, naval force protection, maritime security, maritime environment monitoring and intelligence, and search and rescue. The H160M’s power, range and equipment options make it an ideal aircraft for missions involving national airspace protection and search and rescue.

Honeywell F124 Turbofan Engine

Honeywell F124 Turbofan Engine

The Honeywell/ITEC F124 is a low-bypass turbofan engine derived from the civilian Honeywell TFE731. The F125 is an afterburning version of the engine. The engine began development in the late 1970s for the Republic of China (Taiwan) Air Force AIDC F-CK Indigenous Defence Fighter (IDF), and it first ran in 1979. The F124/F125 engine has since been proposed for use on other aircraft, such as the T-45 Goshawk and the SEPECAT Jaguar, and currently powers the Aero L-159 Alca and the Alenia Aermacchi M-346. The F124 has a rather unusual design for a two spool gas turbine engine, using both axial and centrifugal compressors in its high-pressure compressor. There are currently only three production variants of the engine, although several more have been proposed throughout its lifespan.

AIDC F-CK-1 Ching-kuo

AIDC F-CK-1 Ching-kuo


The Honeywell F124 turbofan engine has what it takes to power today’s most advanced military jet trainers and light combat fighters – maximum performance, reliability and availability. No wonder the F124 was Leonardo DRS’ choice to power the T-100 trainer, the company’s entry in the U.S. Air Force T-X trainer competition. The engine already flies on the Leonardo M346 Master, the most advanced military trainer in service, and on a variety of other light fighters and unmanned vehicles. In all, the F124/F125 family of engines has more than 1 million operating hours to its credit. The F124 has the highest thrust-to-weight ratio in its class, thanks to a unique single-stage design that maximizes engine performance.
Aero L-159 Alca

Aero L-159 Alca


The F124 engine is fundamentally a low bypass, two spool engine (meaning that there are two rotational shafts, a high-pressure shaft and a low-pressure shaft). The fan/low-pressure compressor section is made of three stages with titanium blades. The first stage has 30 un-shrouded blades,and the overall pressure ratio for the three stage fan section is 2.5:1. Some of the air is bypassed (Bypass ratio of 0.472:1), and the rest is fed to the high-pressure compressor section.The high-pressure compressor (HPC) of the F124 is a fairly unusual design among turbofan engines; it employs both axial and a centrifugal compressors in a single design. There are four axial stages that lead to a fifth centrifugal stage. All the blades and the impeller are made from titanium.
Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master

Alenia Aermacchi M-346 Master


The engine features advanced Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) and an integrated Engine Monitoring System (EMS) to keep tabs on engine health, monitor usage and streamline troubleshooting. Modular design makes the engine faster and easier to repair, enabling maintenance teams to put training instructors and student pilots where they belong, back in the air, quickly and efficiently. Safety is paramount in the flight training world and the T-100 provides an additional safety margin by using two F124 engines. The F124 offers all this and more, backed by the global resources of Honeywell and a reputation earned in producing some of the world’s best turbine engines over more than six decades.

Australian Defence Force MRH-90 Taipan Multi Role Helicopter

Australian Defence Force MRH-90 Taipan Multi Role Helicopter

The MRH90 is the Australian version of the NH90 advanced medium-lift, twin-engine, multi-role helicopter anufactured by Australian Aerospace, a unit of Eurocopter (now Airbus Helicopters). The MRH-90 multi-role helicopter replaced the Australian Defence Force (ADF) existing Black Hawk and Sea King helicopter fleets with increased and improved capability, ability and capacity to meet emerging requirements. The MRH90 Taipan helicopters are set to replace the Australian Navy’s Sea King helicopters to perform enhanced maritime support and troop lift operations from land bases and Canberra Class amphibious assault ships.

Australian Defence Force MRH-90 Taipan Multi Role Helicopter

Australian Defence Force MRH-90 Taipan Multi Role Helicopter


The Australian Defence Force (ADF) ordered a total of 47 MRH90s and the first 46 helicopters are scheduled to achieve final operational capability by April 2019. The Multi-Role Helicopter (MRH) programme was designed with a plan to rationalise the number of helicopter types in Australian Defence Force (ADF) service. Originally 46 aircraft had been contracted under projects AIR 9000 Phase 2, 4, and 6. Phase 2 (12 helicopters) was the acquisition of troop-lift aircraft for the Australian Army; Phase 4 (28 helicopters) was to replace the Army’s Sikorsky S-70 Black Hawk helicopters; and Phase 6 (6 helicopters) was to replace the Royal Australian Navy’s (RAN’s) Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King helicopters.
Australian Defence Force MRH-90 Taipan Multi Role Helicopter

Australian Defence Force MRH-90 Taipan Multi Role Helicopter


The MRH-90 Taipan helicopter features all-composite construction and incorporates crash-worthy capabilities based on MIL-STD-1290A. It is capable of conducting missions under difficult weather conditions. It incorporates a large and spacious cabin at the centre fuselage, facilitating 20 troop seats or up to 12 stretchers. The crash-worthy seats accommodate a pilot, a co-pilot, two loadmasters and 18 combat troops. A sliding door is fitted on both sides of the cabin and a ramp is placed at the rear. The structure offers protection up to a speed of 10m/s when landing gear is extended and up to 7m/s with retracted landing gear. The helicopter is 16.13m long and 5.23m high and has an empty weight of 6,400kg and a maximum take-off weight of 10,600kg.
Australian Defence Force MRH-90 Taipan Multi Role Helicopter

Australian Defence Force MRH-90 Taipan Multi Role Helicopter


The MRH-90 Taipan helicopter is powered by two Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322-01/9 turbo-shaft engines, which generate an output power of 1,662kW each. The helicopter can fly at a maximum speed of 300km/h and has a range of 800km. It can operate at a service ceiling of 20,000ft and can climb at a rate of 8m per second. The helicopter has a four-bladed main rotor and a high positioned tail rotor coupled with the main transmission for anti-torque function. The tricycle type retractable landing gear features two single-tire main units to retract into the centre fuselage as well as a twin-wheel nose unit to pull back into the forward fuselage.

Leonardo Grifo Airborne Fire Control Radars Family

The Airborne and Space Systems Divisionhas over 60 years of experience and masters all the technologies involved in radar design, development and production. A leader in the airborne radar market, the Company delivers state-of-the-art, modular radar systems. With over 450 units sold and more than 100,000 flight hours, the GRIFO Radar family, a fourth-generation of X-band coherent pulse-doppler multimode fire-control radar, offers advanced performances to new and upgraded aircraft. Thanks to the modular architecture made by a configurable number of compact Line Replaceable Units (LRU), GRIFO can be easily integrated in modern avionic suites and fully interfaced via HOTAS command, for a cost-effective solution.

The GRIFO E is the latest Fire Control E-Scan pulse doppler multimode Airborne Radar, the latest radar of the GRIFO Family. It features a wide set of advanced and up to date capabilities and provides remarkable levels of situational awareness. GRIFO-346 airborne fire control radar is a coherent, pulse Doppler multimode radar operating in X-band. Its modular architecture enables the installation on a wide range of aircraft and the easy integration in modern Avionic Suites and interface via HOTAS command.

Eurocopter Tiger ARH Attack Helicopter

Eurocopter Tiger ARH Attack Helicopter

The Eurocopter Tiger ARH (Armed Reconnaissance Helicopter) is the version ordered by the Australian Army to replace its OH-58 Kiowas and UH-1 Iroquois-based ‘Bushranger’ gunships. The Tiger ARH is a modified and upgraded version of the Tiger HAP with upgraded MTR390 engines as well as a laser designator incorporated in the Strix sight for the firing of Hellfire II air-to-ground missiles. Instead of SNEB unguided rockets, the ARH will use 70 mm (2.75 in) rockets from Belgian developer, Forges de Zeebrugge (FZ). Twenty-two of the variant were ordered in December 2001. Most of the helicopters will be operated by the 1st Aviation Regiment based at Robertson Barracks in Darwin. The helicopter was shipped to Australia in part form and locally assembled at Brisbane Airport by Australia Aerospace.

Eurocopter Tiger ARH Attack Helicopter

Eurocopter Tiger ARH Attack Helicopter


The first two ARH helicopters were delivered to Australia on 15 December 2004. ARH deliveries were to be completed by June 2010 with Full operating capability planned for December 2011. In 2012 after three incidents with cockpit fumes that endangered aircrew, pilots voted to not fly until all safety concerns were addressed. In August 2014, the Australian Defence Force and BAE Systems Australia successfully trialled the Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System laser guidance kit for use with the ARH’s 70mm FZ unguided rockets. The 2016 Australian Defence White Paper stated that the Tiger helicopters will be replaced with other armed reconnaissance aircraft in the mid 2020s. The Australian Army’s Tiger ARHs reached their final operating capability on 18 April 2016. In April 2019, the Australian Army renewed Airbus Helicopters maintenance contract for another 5 years running through to 2025.
Eurocopter Tiger ARH Attack Helicopter

Eurocopter Tiger ARH Attack Helicopter


The ARH is equipped with a GIAT 30mm DEFA M781 cannon in a chin-mounted turret (below the helicopter’s nose). It can be used for engaging ground or air targets, and has a rate of fire up to 750 rounds per minute. The M781 is a dual feed weapon allowing for two different types of ammunition to be stored and selected. The weapon can be controlled via the Helmet-Mounted Sight Display, which can direct the aim of the cannon accurately to where the battle captain is looking using sensors within the helmet and cockpit. the Tiger ARH uses AGM-114 Hellfire II air-to-ground missile system, capable of defeating all current and projected armoured vehicles, as well as strong points, day or night and in adverse weather. The missile is laser-guided and has an inbuilt laser seeker that can read a specially coded laser being reflected off a target.
Eurocopter Tiger ARH Attack Helicopter

Eurocopter Tiger ARH Attack Helicopter


The Eurocopter (now Airbus Helicopters) Tiger is a four-bladed, twin-engined attack helicopter which first entered service in 2003. It is manufactured by Eurocopter (now Airbus Helicopters), the successor company to Aérospatiale’s and DASA’s respective helicopter divisions, which designate it as the EC665. Following their languages, in Germany it is known as the Tiger; in France and Spain it is called the Tigre. Development of the Tiger started during the Cold War, and it was initially intended as an anti-tank helicopter platform to be used against a Soviet ground invasion of Western Europe. The Tiger has the distinction of being the first all-composite helicopter developed in Europe; features such as a glass cockpit, stealth technology, and high agility to increase its survivability. Since the type’s introduction to service, Tigers have been used in combat in Afghanistan, Libya, and Mali.