Russian agency TASS reported that three Voronezh-type radars of Russia’s missile attack early warning system will be modernized by 2028. Three stations are to be modernized in the short-term perspective, in 2025-2028: the Voronezh-M station in Lekhtus (Leningrad Region in northwestern Russia), Voronezh-DM in Armavir (Central Russia) and Voronezh-M in Ussolye-Sibirskoye (Siberia’s Irkutsk Region). The early warning system stations obtain and provide data on missile launches and enemy missile trajectories to warn about nuclear strikes on objects of state and military control. In accordance with the modernization plan, jamming resistance and power supply systems will be improved on a first-priority basis.
Voronezh radars are the current generation of Russian early-warning radar, providing long distance monitoring of airspace against ballistic missile attack and aircraft monitoring. The first radar, in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg, became operational in 2009. There is a plan to replace older radars with the Voronezh by 2020. Their common name follows the pattern of Soviet radars in being named after a river, the Voronezh. The previous generation of radar was known as the Daryal (after Darial Gorge), Volga (after Volga River) and Daugava (Daugava River) and the generation before the Dnepr (Dnieper River), and Dnestr (Dniester River). Russia has used the launch of these new radars to raise its concerns about US missile defence in Europe.
Vympel NPO joint stock company is a Russian research and production company based near Moscow, mostly known for their air-to-air missiles. Other projects include SAM and ABM defenses. Vympel started out after World War II as OKB-134, with Ivan I. Toropov leading the team. The first product they designed was the K-7 missile. Their first missile built in serial production was the K-13 (R-13) in 1958. Toropov moved to Tushino Aviation Facility in 1961 and was replaced by Andrey Lyapin. Somewhere between 1966 and 1968 the OKB got renamed to Vympel. In 1992 the GosMKB Vympel got started on the basis of the OKB and in 1994 Sokolovski became the director of development at the company. In May 2004 the Tactical Missiles Corporation was formed and Vympel became a part of it, as the design and development facility.